Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon Subwatershed

Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon river is located in the central portion of the watershed where the Little Wapsipinicon river joins the main channel of the Wapsipinicon River. Over seventy percent of the watershed is in row crop. The flat landscape of the watershed allows for increased pressure from row crop management. Grassland, pasture and developed areas make up the next major land cover of the watershed at a little under ten percent each. Forest and grasslands are located along the little Wapsipinicon River.

Subwatershed Stats

  • HUC #: 070801020505
  • Watershed Acres: 25,401
  • Geologic Features: 2 sinkholes
  • Total Length of Stream: 14.8 miles
  • Stream and Watershed Designations: 14.85 miles of A2 B(WW-2) (Read about the designations)
  • Number of CAFOs (2018): 9
  • Percent Subwatershed in Cover Crops (2017): 0.22%
  • WMA Priority Subwatershed: Yes

Background Info

Land Cover (2016)

The map and pie chart below illustrate land use in the Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon Watershed. Land cover information for the entire Upper Wapsi River Watershed, as well as information on historical cover, land ownership, and livestock production, can be found on the Land Cover/Land Use page.

Geological Snapshot

The Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon River Subwatershed is located in the Iowan Surface landform Region. The physical characteristics of this landform region contain numerous clues to Iowa’s glacial history. The Iowan Surface also contains some Karst features, such as sinkholes, influence hydrology and provide unique challenges with implementation of detention structures like ponds and WASCOBs.

Water Quality Sampling Data

The Upper Wapsipinicon River WMA monthly takes a monthly water sample snapshot at locations across the watershed. More information about water sampling in the Upper Wapsi River Watershed and results for Nitrate, Phosphorus, Total Suspended Solids, E. Coli Bacteria, Chloride, and Sulfate are all available.


No fish surveys have been completed at this time.


No impairments at this time.

Precipitation and Soil Erosion

The Daily Erosion Project estimates soil erosion and water runoff occurring on hill slopes in Iowa and surrounding states. Compare Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon subwatershed with other watersheds in the Upper Wapsi or with watersheds across the Upper Midwest at

Analysis of Existing Agricultural Practices

Cover Crop Analysis

Although landowners utilize cover crops on their own and through conservation programs, cover crop usage has never been tracked spatially. Northeast Iowa RC&D completed a GIS analysis to estimate total acres and geographical location of cover crops using 2017 satellite and aerial imagery. Total percentage of the entire subwatershed treated using cover crops as well as the percent crop acres treated using cover crops were calculated.

In 2017, there were 55.7 acres of cover crops covering 0.29% of crop acres in the Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon subwatershed as compared to 3.1% for the State of Iowa (2017-2018 Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy Annual Progress Report and 2017 USDA/NASS Field Crop Totals).

Best Management Practice (BMP) Mapping Project Summary

A GIS analysis was conducted by Iowa State University (ISU) as a part of the Iowa BMP Mapping Project. According to ISU, “The Iowa BMP (Best Management Practices) Mapping Project provides an accurate inventory of BMPs which are essential to establish baseline conditions and document implementation resulting from the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. The primary focus of this project [was] to create the 2010 baseline inventory dataset, covering a period from 2007-2010 by digitizing conservation practices using aerial imagery and LiDAR derivative data.” The project specifically identified existing BMP structures that could be viewed on aerial imagery, including ponds, water and sediment control basins (WASCOBs), terraces, grass waterways, and contour buffer strips. The Iowa Best Management Practice (BMP) Mapping Project identified 3 pond structures and 17 WASCOBs in the Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon subwatershed. Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon also contains many miles of existing grass waterways and fields with contour buffer strips, which provide deep-rooted vegetation within agriculture fields to help infiltrate and hold water.

Interactive & Static Maps of Existing BMP Practices


Contour Buffer Strips
Grass Waterways
Pond Dams

Additional Ag Conservation Practice Options

Iowa Flood Center: Agricultural Planning Framework Toolbox Results

The Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) is a concept for agricultural watershed management supported by high-resolution data and an ArcGIS toolbox, which are used to identify site-specific opportunities to install conservation practices across small watersheds. This non-prescriptive approach provides a menu of conservation options to facilitate conservation discussions on farms and in community halls. The framework is used in conjunction with local knowledge of water and soil resource concerns, landscape features, and producer conservation preferences to provide a better understanding of the options available in developing a watershed conservation plan.

In 2018, the Iowa Flood Center utilized the ACPF toolbox software to map ideas for conservation practices in the Upper Wapsi River subwatersheds. A map and a summary of results for Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon follow:

  • 38.1% of the watershed could be treated with ponds, WASCOBs, grassed waterways, and contour buffer strips. This would slow or infiltrate water from 9,700 acres of the Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon subwatershed.
  • 16 potential ponds and 15 potential WASCOB structures could be implemented in the subwatershed.
  • Some of the potential structures identified using the ACPF tool have already been implemented and can be seen in the results of the BMP Mapping Project and through Fayette and Buchanan County SWCD and NRCS reports.


Contour Buffer Strips
Grass Waterways
Nutrient Removal Wetlands
Drainage Mgmt Areas

Hydrologic Assessment

The Upper Wapsipinicon Hydrologic Assessment modeled land cover changes throughout the watershed and its effect on the historic peak flows at six different index points. Index points are located at 1) East Fork Wapsipinicon River, 2) Wapsipinicon River near Tripoli (USGS Gauge), 3) Little Wapsipinicon River, 4) Wapsipinicon River at Independence (USGS Gauge), 5) Buffalo Creek, 6) Wapsipinicon River upstream from Anamosa. According to the Upper Wapsipinicon River Watershed Hydrologic Assessment, these points were chosen based on several criteria including the location of a USGS gauging station, areas of high-risk potential and/or proximity to a community, and to demonstrate the model results at different spatial scales."

The GHOST model used peak flows from 15 of the highest rainfall events from 2002 to 2016 as a baseline. The nearest index point to the Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon subwatershed is located at the mouth of the Little Wapsipinicon River. According to results in the Upper Wapsipinicon Hydrologic Assessment, if all ponds upstream of the index point, including Village of Fairbank-Little Wapsipinicon structures modeled by the ACPF tool were implemented, the index point at the mouth of the Little Wapsipinicon River would experience a 8% peak flow reduction. Other Upper Wapsipinicon River index points that have larger drainage areas (index points located on the Wapsipinicon River) modeled lower peak flow reductions compared to the Little Wapsipinicon River index point. The Hydrologic Assessment also modeled other land cover scenarios like 100% native vegetation and 100% cover crop/no-till rotations that show significant flow reductions at this index point.

Summary of Recommendations



Goal: Overall Discharge reduction of 12 inches from peak river level at Independence in 2008

Detention Structures

  • Ponds,
  • Wetlands
  • Oxbow Restoration
  • On-road structures
  • 15,000 acre-feet of distributed storage for priority HUC12 watersheds
  • *Priority HUC 12s are upland subwatersheds above the community of Independence and excluding those in the Wapsi River Corridor
  • 18,000 acre-feet of distributed storage for the entire Upper Wapsi River Watershed

Soil Health

  • Cover Crops
  • No-till / Reduced Tillage
  • Multi-cropping / Regenerative cropping
  • 100% cover by one or more of the soil health or perennial cover practices on 445 acres of 'Critical' and 'Very High' Runoff Risk parcels as determined by the ACPF model.
  • 60% cover on parcels deemed as 'High" Runoff Risk' (5,668 acres x 60% = 3,401 perennial cover acres)
  • 40% cover by one or more of the soil health or perennial cover practices on the remaining acres. (20,396 acres x 40% = 8,158 perennial cover acres)

Perennial Cover

  • CRP
  • Tree and Shrub Establishment (TSI)
  • Contour Buffer Strips
  • Prairie Strips
  • Grass Waterways
  • Diverse Crop Rotations
  • Rotational Grazing

Water Quality Improvement

  • Manure Storage Systems
  • Bioreactors
  • Saturated Buffers
  • Drainage Water Management Systems
  • Livestock Stream Exclusion
  • Livestock Proximity


Implement Water quality improvement practices to reach the following goals:

  • Reduce Nitrates to below 6 mg/L in all surface and source waters.
  • Reduce Total Phosphorus below 0.2 mg/L
  • Meet standards for all designations/No impairments.
  • Reduce turbidity/Increase visibility in surface water during rainfall events to no less than 10 cm.
  • Continue stream monitoring.
  • Encourage well testing and analyze test results by subwatershed
  • Restore and maintain a viable population of smallmouth bass and northern pike along the entire Upper Wapsi River
  • Completed phase 2 source water assessment for all communities in the Upper Wapsi River Watershed

Flood Plain Management

  • Stream Bank Stabilization
  • Riparian Buffer Strips
  • Move vulnerable populations
  • Acquire easements
  • Instream habitat


  • Protect near stream habitat and river floodplains through easements.
  • Reduce impact to vulnerable populations and at-risk properties through buyouts, and development of affordable housing outside of the floodplain.
  • Increase native vegetation planting adjacent to streams and rivers by 50%. ­­
  • Protect critical Transportation infrastructure, with emphasis on emergency response routes.
  • Relocate critical response services and facilities out of the floodplain
  • Reduce CAFO/manure storage siting in floodplain areas